The Journal of Caribbean History: Volume 41, Issue 1 and 2

Article 9
The African Blood Brotherhood: From Caribbean Nationalism to Communism

J.A. Zumoff


The article examines the African Blood Brotherhood (ABB), the first group of Black Communists in the United States. It traces the development of the ABB from Caribbean nationalists in Harlem to leaders of the Communist Party (CP), and argues that it was the anticolonial and anti-imperialist nature of Bolshevism, and not the practices of the American Communists themselves, that attracted the ABB. It also analyses how the ABB, once members of the CP, first focused on Garvey’s UNIA and, within the Party, served as a tribune to express concerns with the party leadership’s indifference to the “Negro Question.”