The Journal of Caribbean History: Volume 36, Issue 1

Article 4
Education and Socialization among the Indo-Muslims of Trinidad, 1917-1969

Halima-sa’adia Kassim


This paper examines the formal and non-formal modes of education that coexisted in the Muslim community in the post-indentureship period. It evaluates the persistence of the old culture and the attempts at acculturation. It examines maktabs (religious schools), Indie language schools, and literary and debating societies as examples of the non-formal mode of knowledge transmission. It also explores early attempts at formal schooling. Likewise, it probes the competitive struggles that evolved among the Indo-Muslim middle class and the wider Indian middle class to increase their literacy rate. While this paper provides an insight into the pattern of development with in the Muslim community, it is more concerned with the effects these institutions had on the community. It concludes that the acculturation of the Indo-Muslims was occasioned to a significant extent by a conscious attempt on their part to achieve more meaningful integration in to Trinidadian society and in this sense might be regarded as being partly self-imposed.