Caribbean Journal of Psychology: Vol. 11, Issue 2, 2019

Article 2
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE), Coping Skills, and Biopsychological Outcomes in Grenadian Workers

Isabelle Mueller
University of Massachusetts, Boston

Satesh Bidaisee
St. Georges Medical School, Grenada

Richard Honigman
Reach Within Foundation, New York City

Abishek Bala
St. Georges Medical School, Grenada

Hannah Lapp
Richard G. Hunter
Ed Tronick
University of Massachusetts, Boston


A substantial body of evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are associated with negative health out-comes. While this relationship has been widely established for developed countries, the present study is the first to our knowledge to look at ACE, as well as protective factors and life outcomes in a developing Caribbean nation. The present study compared early life experiences of 57 nutmeg workers in Grenada with a global lifetime measure of adult outcomes, including physical and mental health, level of education, substance use, and delinquency. Higher ACE scores were significantly associated with increased poorer global lifetime outcomes. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between ACE and coping skills, as well as coping skills and global health outcome measures. ACE in a Caribbean nation appear to occur at similar rates to developed countries. The findings suggest interplay between ACE, coping skills, and global adverse life out-comes. Interventions aimed at preventing ACE and increasing coping skills in young children and youth at risk may represent an effective prospective treatment to reduce the negative impact of ACE.